The Amiga keyboard is a matrix of rows and columns with a key switch at each intersection (see Appendix G for a diagram of the matrix). Because of this, the keyboard is subject to a phenomenon called "phantom keystrokes." While this is generally not a problem for typing, games may require several keys be independently held down at once. By examining the matrix, you can determine which keys may interfere with each other, and which ones are always safe. Phantom keystrokes occur when certain combinations of keys pressed are pressed simultaneously. For example, hold the "A" and "S" keys down simultaneously. Notice that "A" and "S" are transmitted. While still holding them down, press "Z". On the original Amiga 1000 keyboard, both the "Z" and a ghost "X" would be generated. Starting with the Amiga 500, the controller was upgraded to notice simple phantom situations like the one above; instead of generating a ghost, the controller will hold off sending any character until the matrix has cleared (releasing "A" or "S" would clear the matrix). Some high-end Amiga keyboards may implement true "N-key rollover," where any combination of keys can be detected simultaneously. All of the keyboards are designed so that phantoms will not happen during normal typing, only when unusual key combinations like the one just described are pressed. Normally, the keyboard will appear to have "N-key rollover," which means that you will run out of fingers before generating a ghost character. About the qualifier keys. ------------------------- Seven keys are not part of the matrix, and will never contribute to generating phantoms. These keys are: Ctrl, the two Shift keys, the two Amiga keys, and the two Alt keys.